Alternative Medicine and Eating Disorders


Eating disorders are a group of mental health conditions that are characterized by inappropriate eating patterns when confronted with stress or any pressing life situations. The person will then resort to behaviors such as intentional deprivation of food, excessive physical exertion to lose weight, or overeating then getting rid of recent food intake. It should be taken seriously, and mental help is highly needed because it can lead to severe complications and even death. This mental health problem may also co-develop with another which is depression. According to Mindia Gabichvadze, PsyD, “Symptoms may include persistent feelings of hopelessness, sadness, or emptiness.” 

Eating disorders include anorexia and bulimia, the most common. “Being severely underweight and malnourished, which is common in anorexia, can cause physiological changes that are known to negatively affect mood states,” says Lisa Lilenfeld, PhD, an associate professor and an expert in eating disorders. Bulimia, creates the binge-purge cycle which is equally dangerous to one’s physical health.

Treating eating disorders will vary depending on the level of acceptance, will, and commitment of the person to be addressed. Mental health professionals such as psychologist will conduct therapy sessions with the person allowing oneself to reframe the mind into giving importance to self-worth and correcting body image disturbance. Alongside with talk therapy, positive coping mechanisms are introduced to help the person face every challenge with optimism as well as healthy eating practices to regain one’s physical health and encourage healthy living practices.

There is no specific medication to treat eating disorders. Since anxiety highly triggers the condition, psychiatrists often prescribe anti-anxiety drugs to minimize the symptoms and calm the person. Most of the times, persons with eating disorders are also depressed due to their constant thoughts that they are too fat or “not presentable.” If there are some indications of depressive states, psychiatrists then administer antidepressant medications. In the case of binge eating or obesity, appetite suppressants are frequently given help curb appetite.

Alternative medicines

There is no final consensus on whether alternative modalities to treating eating disorders are highly effective if taken alone. Specialists always recommend that it should be together with or in conjunction with the traditional treatments. Also, if the person opted to use alternative therapies, they should inform their medical provider of such decision.


Our research led us to the following alternative treatments that have shown positive effects in managing eating disorders:

Acupuncture. An old Chinese therapeutic technique of inserting needles in specific body points that are believed connected with the neural pathways thus correcting the imbalance. Most individuals with eating disorders have a problem with depression and anxiety. Through acupuncture, brain chemicals responsible for the regulation of mood are made available if not adequate and suppressed if there is enough supply.

Aromatherapy. Aromatic scents can regulate mood and feelings. Although little research is known on how aromatherapy helps in eating disorders, its primary aim is to induce a calming and soothing effect to minimize any episodes of stress or depression. Some scents can also stimulate appetite and increase food intake.

Yoga and meditation. In anorexia nervosa, extreme exercising is prohibited because this can aggravate the condition. Yoga is a meditative form of exercise and can be helpful in managing depression and regulate mood. Together with proper body positioning, this form of alternative treatment can also treat other physical or medical problems such as back pain, controlling blood pressure and heart rate and gastrointestinal issues. Meditation allows mental clarity which can ease the person’s anxiety levels.


Homeopathic medicine. An old form of alternative treatment where it has made positive claims in other medical and psychological disorders as well. Homeopathy involves the preparation of herbal plants and minerals to make pills or potions and taken by the person to help cure any medical or mental problems. The practice has been going on for several centuries, and some have proven their benefits.

Also, do not discount this. “Psychotherapy can be very helpful in addressing not only your disordered eating, but also your overall emotional health and happiness. Indeed, the focus of psychotherapy treatment will be to address the underlying emotional and cognitive issues that result in the disordered eating,” says John M. Grohol, Psy.D.

What You Should Know About Antipsychotics


When psychosis hits a person, he becomes entangled with figments of imagination and detached from reality showing bizarre behaviors that are contrary to the norms like having irrational ideas, extreme mood swings, poor hygiene, and inappropriate sleep cycles. Often, people having psychosis are oblivious that their condition is already ill health.

To stabilize these odd behaviors, antipsychotic medicines are prescribed to alter the brain chemistry to diminish psychotic symptoms like phantasm, hallucination and tangled thinking. These medications moreover prevent the recurrence of symptoms provided that adherence to proper intake and monitoring is strictly observed.

There are several misconceptions about antipsychotic medicines. This article will describe some common myths and correct the information.

Fallacy 1: Antipsychotic medications can cure mental illness.

The drugs are known to regulate brain chemicals responsible for psychotic symptoms but not totally eradicate nor cure it. Psychotic disorders, like schizophrenia, are a chronic mental illness that can be managed if continued treatment is established. Just like diabetes, the symptoms can be controlled to ensure a functional life, but if treatment stops, the disorder still prevails.

Fallacy 2: Antipsychotic medications are called happy pills.


The so-called “happy pills” are urban lingo for drugs that uplift one’s moods. It is more of the antidepressant group of medications given to manage depression and anxiety disorders. Antipsychotic drugs are also called major tranquilizers, psychotropic medications, wherein the newest forms are called atypical antipsychotic medications.

Fallacy 3: Antipsychotic medications are not given to pregnant women.

Psychiatrists usually don’t discontinue antipsychotic medications even if one is pregnant. If the drug is helping with the psychotic episodes, the benefit outweighs the side effects if there are any thus making sure that the condition for the baby and the mother is safe all throughout the pregnancy stage.

Fallacy 4: If one drug is not working, another pill is added to enhance its effects.

This is being avoided. Doctors will try other antipsychotic until favorable results are obtained. The therapeutic and side effects are monitored to ensure that the benefits are more seen rather than the adverse effects.

Other Special Concerns

Some individuals would stop taking their medicines because of the unfavorable side effects of the drug. Some of the undesirable effects are tardive dyskinesia, uncontrollable muscle movements, and Parkinson-like movements. Health education should be emphasized to a continued medication adherence to prevent recurrence of symptoms. The newest forms of drugs have fewer side effects, and only the milder forms are observed.


Also, nutritional information should be provided because some drugs can cause complications with the interaction of some food substances.

If there are any other symptoms that you notice while taking the drug, immediately consult your medical provider for proper evaluation and treatment. Abrupt discontinuation of the medications is highly not encouraged. Only your medical provider can alter or stop your medications. Since alternative medicine is very much acceptable right now, for sure, you will be introduced to some modalities and will try to manage your mental illness. Make sure to inform your doctor about this decision so that he can give you more information on what to do in conjunction with your traditional treatment.


Therapeutic Tips That Fight Stress



“Stress is somewhat difficult to describe accurately beyond simply saying that you know it when you feel it.” according to Roxanna Miller, LMHC.

As an individual, I can never say that I have ample time to think about myself. Honestly, my life is like a pumping machine that never allows me to take a step back. I cannot fully rest and find calmness in everything I do. I feel like I am battling with time only to grab opportunities. I never think about anything rather than creating something useful for my needs as well as my family. I feel trapped in a situation where I could not allow myself to complain. I am not happy anymore, but I do not think I can live without life’s pressure. Yes, it is not always that I get to experience anxiety and depression, and I am thankful for that. However, with all the toxicity in my life, I cannot have time to think about helping myself. That is regardless if that includes my job, family, community, and romantic relationship. According to Mary K. Tatum, LMHC, “Stress is variable and affects everyone differently.”

Good thing I widen my horizon, and now I am getting better with the help of these therapeutic tips I got from my therapist.

Healing Through Music

As much as a cliché, listening to music is genuinely one of the best therapeutic things that work. Not only it can provide a significant amount of body and mind calmness, but it also allows better mood regulation. Music is indeed the best tool that reduces stress and anxiety because of its ability to alter the brain’s pathways. So instead of overthinking and using the mind too much, music allows it to stay in a positive direction. With that, the assurance of having mindfulness becomes possible.



Happiness In Writing

According to American social psychologist Dr. James Pennebakerwriting even three or four times – for ten to fifteen minutes each time – will help you heal much faster from trauma. It helps to clear the mind chatter that can keep you feeling depressed, anxious, and stressed.

Writing is perhaps the underrated habit that a stressful individual can have. That is because of the whole process of spending time on thinking what to write, and physically working on it can be a little exhausting. However, once a piece gets started, that is where the magic begins. Writing allows for better emotional and mental expression. It supports enhanced vocabulary and cognitive function. Since there is a positive effect on the brain, writing can entirely reduce stress and anxiety. So there is nothing much anyone can complain about writing for them not to consider doing it.

Building Exercise

Exercise is the most significant habit one can build to boost their immune system. But its purpose does not get limited to support physical attributes only. Exercise can make the brain stronger and healthier. It can reduce the symptoms of stress, anxiety, and even cases of depression. In some fortunate instances, exercise can become a great asset in a person’s overall development. It helps in reducing symptoms of chronic illness as well. That explains why it is the most recommended habit that everyone should consider doing.



There are tons of therapeutic methods that a stressed person can use. Some options do not require any amount of money. Some does not take too much time and does not even affect daily duties and responsibilities. For me, these top three methods are the best of the bests.

Treating Eating Disorders With Medications


Despite awareness and support groups available for eating disorders, it remains the fact that eating disorders affect a significant proportion of adolescents, teenagers, and even young adults. Sadly, the prevalence of eating disorders most especially binge eating disorders is steadily increasing and have resulted in serious and significant problems due to the associated comorbidities like depression; According to Mindia Gabichvadze, PsyD, “Symptoms may include persistent feelings of hopelessness, sadness, or emptiness.”

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Therapeutic Communication To Those Who Needs To Recover From Grief




There is nothing more devastating than losing someone that is a significant part of our lives. It gives an immeasurable sense of uncomfortability that most of us cannot seem to understand. It is as if there is a creation of emptiness from nothing in particular. There are too much sorrow and pain that controls life. With all the devastation, one can agree that the only way to fully recover is to acknowledge the mixed emotions coming from grief.

“Grieving the loss of a loved one tears open our hearts, our lives, and seems to make time stand still, as we search for ways to make sense of the loss and what it means to our whole lives. We cry, eat more or less, can’t sleep, long for our loved ones and wonder how we will ever be able to live without them. This is all normal in simple grief,” according to Deborah Khoshaba Psy.D.

But how can we make it through if we get surrounded by negative energy?

Psychologist William Worden suggests that there are “four tasks one must accomplish in order for the grieving and mourning processes to be completed appropriately, and life equilibrium to be re-established.” Accepting the reality, processing your grief and pain, adjusting to the world without your loved one, and maintaining connection to the dead loved one while moving on.

Finding The Right People

Friends and family are the ones we run to whenever we are not emotionally and mentally feeling okay. It is their role to help us get through the emotional crisis we are having. However, not all of them will avoid judgment. There are those people who will criticize us for being weak and unable to fix ourselves. Some will blame us and even throw the guilt on us. Some of these people have the potential to become the source of our emotional and mental agony. With that, we need to exert an extra effort in finding the right people to surround ourselves with. We have to focus on allowing positive energy instead of sticking with those unhealthy ones.



Communicating With Good Purpose

It is okay that some people feel sorry for our loss. No, we should not have to feel disheartened just because people are trying to extend their concern towards our emotional dilemma. Admit it. We often think that the way they show their care is somehow an insult to our emotional and mental capability. However, it is not like that. Yes, we excuse ourselves for thinking that people look down on us because we are not emotionally and mentally stable. Sometimes we believe that their actions can have a double meaning. Why? That is because we appear consumed with too many things in our head that we cannot identify which is helpful and not beneficial for our development anymore. Since we feel mixed with negative emotions, we need to use communication as a tool to help us remove ourselves from isolation.

Talk Therapy

One of the delightful things in life is having people that wholeheartedly listens to you and cares for you. So in times of emotional crisis, the best thing that can help us is always those significant people that are more than willing to reach out. On our part, though our grief can sometimes become a pain in the ass and takes over our lives, we still need to express our emotions. It is our responsibility to allow people to help us so we can get better. We have to understand the importance of good conversation from people who we trust and value. With that, we need to use all our remaining effort to talk with someone we trust. That is regardless if he or she can help us or not. Because even though that person can never do anything, the effort and time he or she provides in listening can become more than enough.



It is not always that we know how to handle situations. But in an emotional crisis, the people who genuinely care for us are the only ones we will need. Margarita Tartakovsky, M.S. said “Navigating grief takes work. And it may mean doing things you’re unfamiliar or uncomfortable with, such as actually feeling your feelings. But it’s worth it.”

The Important Benefits of Aromatherapy

Essential oils therapy comprises of traditional or alternative therapies that utilize essential oils and other sweet-smelling plant compounds. Aromatherapy is an age-old health practice in different groups of the population for treatment and wellness purposes. Due to the benefits of aromatherapy, essential oils are continuously popular as a natural, cost-effective and safe option on various health concerns. Aromatherapy is often used by inhaling the scents or application of the balm and poultice to localized areas of the body.


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Psychiatrist’s Advice To Those Patients In Medication



Mental illness has become a going battle that somehow results in too much pressure, anxiety, and stress. In some unfortunate cases, it gets quickly drawn to depression. Conditions are different from one person to another. There is mild to severe instances that it affects life duties and responsibilities. The signs and symptoms also vary as well. However, the thing that represents its general effect on people is the process of recovery. There is always therapy and medication that patients need to take to become healthy and better.

Medication And Mental Health Issues



In addressing the mental health issue, it is essential to speak with a psychiatrist about how therapy and medication are affecting one’s life. That is because; things can be different from all sorts of angles. Note, not because something does not hurt, it does not mean it should never receive treatment. That is the point. The idea of having mental health problems gets misinterpret because no one can explain any physical pain. Though there are some changes in emotional and psychological stability, a lot of individuals are still unable to recognize the damaging signs of some mental illnesses. Infrequent cases, the use of medication is essential in controlling some of the symptoms that are causing patients to become dysfunctional. With that, medical health experts want people to understand the value of taking the right medicine at the correct dosage. Patients need to know the types of drugs they are taking, and when they should consume it.

Attempt To Control Vs. Being In Control

Treating mental health problem with medication can be very useful when it gets taken in the right amount of dosage at the right amount of time. Of course, that is if the professional medical expert provides the right drugs as well. But for the whole idea of medication to work, patients must try and do their best to ensure the other components of their lives. Meaning, things should be in order as it is normal for them. With that, patients must consider doing things in life based on how they feel comfortable with the task. It should not be because they live under the pressures of working and making things better for them, and everyone else around. So to observe the effects of these patients medication, they must not push their limits in controlling things. They only need to control specific stuff that they must appear on top of the list of their priorities.



Mental illness is not something that all people can discuss openly. For other people, their situations may seem a little too complicated to suggest a couple of therapy sessions and medication. Sometimes, involvement with other people and lifestyle changes are also factors. Yes, the voluntary change is not instant, and some persons might not be able to adapt to it even if they genuinely try so hard. But the thought of trying and wanting to get better is more than enough.

Transitioning To Using Medication To Treat Mental Illness



Medication is as necessary as therapy. However, I do recognize that taking drugs to treat mental illness is not a notion that everyone should do. I know a lot of individuals are not in total agreement with taking multiple medications for their mental health recovery, and that is entirely okay. Yes, it can be a tremendous asset in assisting many people that are suffering from signs and symptoms. But I also agree that it is not the only way that helps people in recovering from mental illness. Honestly, this article is not about proving if medication is good or bad. That is a different discussion to tackle. Instead, it targets more on those individuals who already chose to rely upon and experiment with drug therapy in aiding mental health conditions.

Helpful Tips In Using Medication

One of the essential things that patients should always put in mind is the importance of following instructions. That includes taking medicine as prescribed by a psychiatrist or a doctor. So, if a patient gets told to take only 30 milligrams of a particular drug every single day, then that should be it. The patient should follow the instruction of taking medication only on specific situations such as panic attacks. He should only consider taking the drugs every time the condition occurs. The point is, drugs should be taken accordingly. And under certain circumstances, the patients should never entirely stop taking the medication without doctor’s consultation.



When a patient is taking drugs prescription, he is putting substances into his body. These substances are generally not there or at least are not that concentrated. Therefore, if a patient takes drugs, he can expect it to alter his brain chemistry. So it is not something he should mess around with. With that, the importance of not taking any triggering and other harmful substances appear to be extremely off-limits. It includes drinking alcohol and taking other unprescribed drugs, for instance. It is essential to recognize the severity of taking particular medications.

A patient must entrust his mental health recovery to professional health care. Therefore, it is his responsibility, to be honest with his doctor. It will allow for sufficient help. Yes, sometimes, a patient might have to change the dosage of his drugs, and that is entirely okay. True that it can be scary because there is a doubt of effectiveness when there’s a change in prescription. However, that is a regular occurrence in finding the right medication that fits the most.  The doctor must know what is going on in the patient for that change in prescription to happen. Regardless if it is bad or good, the mental health professional needs to do so; he can administer a new set of medication.



The upgrades and getting higher medication is not always a negative thing. When a patient already feels better, then that means he is on the right medication. And if he is not, then a mental health professional can acknowledge that things need to change.

Cannabis Oil And Its Benefits On Lung Cancer




Year after year, lung cancer has been found to be the number two most common type of cancer in America. There are over 200,000 people diagnosed with lung cancer annually. Chemotherapy is typically its treatment of choice, along with other targeted treatments. However, there has been an increasing number of doctors, therapists, and psychiatrists who recommend that their patients try cannabis oil for treating their lung cancer. Several clinical trials and studies now suggest that it might aid in stopping the growth of cancer cells. As it is, the oil is currently being utilized to reduce cancer symptoms and the side effects of chemotherapy.

Continue reading to learn more about the types of cannabis oils, its benefits, and its corresponding side effects on lung cancer patients.

Primary Types of Cannabis Oils

Before discussing the benefits of cannabis oil, it is vital to know that various types of oil are available in different forms. Cannabinoids, for example, are chemical components that have certain effects on an individual when taken by mouth. THC and CBD are two common cannabinoids, the former responsible for producing a ‘high’ and the latter is usually utilized for therapeutic reasons.

CBD Oil. As mentioned previously, this oil is used for therapeutic purposes and is a nonpsychoactive type of cannabis. It does not produce a ‘high’ but is popular for producing positive effects such as a general decrease in pain, anxiety, and chemotherapy side effects.

Marijuana-Derived Oil. This one has a high THC component, so it has psychoactive effects. It is oil extracted from an identical plant where the dried marijuana leaves and buds were removed.

Hemp-Derived Oil. Almost exactly alike with the cannabis, hemp can contain CBD but doesn’t have THC. It is, on the other hand, of lesser quality compared to cannabis. Still, it is often recommended as a good substitute for residents who are living in areas where cannabis has not been legalized.


Rick Simpson Oil. RSO has very little or no amount of CBD and high levels of THC, making it a psychoactive oil.

Evidence Of Positive Outcomes

Despite having no concrete proof, experts have found some favorable evidence through the years.

In 1975, a group of scientists reported that a specific cannabinoid, cannabinol (CBN), and THC decreased the growth of lunch cancer in their experimental study on mice.

In 2014, another study revealed that CBD and THC might be able to help primary cancer cells respond positively to radiation therapy. But the study was done on cells, not on human or animals.

This year, a case report was documented about a male with lung cancer who refused traditional cancer therapy and instead opted using CBD oil. His cancer responded to the use of this oil.

These pieces of data, however, cannot present solid evidence of cannabis curing lung cancer, as none of the studies mentioned involved humans for testing. Additionally, these were small-scale trials that were not duplicated into a larger-scale trial.

 Benefits Of Cannabis On Cancer

While evidence of cannabis oil curing cancer is not clear, there are confirmed benefits of its use, some of which include reduction or relief of:

  • Pain
  • Nausea
  • Anxiety
  • Fatigue
  • Headaches
  • Depression

Cannabis Oil Side Effects

Though generally considered safe, cannabis oils may cause several side effects, particularly those that derived from marijuana leaves. For one, THC in marijuana-derived oil produces psychoactive effects. Also, there are psychological side effects, and these include hallucinations, disorientation, paranoia, anxiety, and depression. Physical effects may also be present, such as bloodshot eyes, damaged motor functions, increased appetite, sleeping problems, decreased blood pressure, and compromised memory.

Generally, the side effects are not permanent, and they last only until the high is present. Thus, they do not have long-term health hazards, although you may feel quite uncomfortable, especially if cannabis use is not prescribed for you.

Ways To Use Cannabis Oil

Cannabis oils can usually be bought as concentrated liquid extracts which vary in ratios and type of chemical component. If the seller is legal, these ratios should be seen on the bottle.


One way to use cannabis oil is through the application on the tongue. You can apply a few drops on the tongue and then swallow. If you cannot tolerate the bitter taste, you can also drop some on your tea or any drink you prefer.

Some of these oils can also be added in a vape, although this method has been reported to irritate the lungs. Therefore, vaping cannabis oil is not recommended for lung cancer patients.

Hemp-derived cannabis is known to be a good choice, as it has no substantial side effects. However, some people present with some side effects, and when they do, they present with stomach problems and fatigue.


Evidence that cannabis oil can be used solely for the treatment of cancer is not overwhelming. Conversely, it has proved to offer a reduction in cancer symptoms.


In the end, even if you, as a lung cancer patient, or someone you love has cancer, and are experiencing positive results from cannabis oil use, you are advised to continue visiting your primary physician and follow his recommended treatment regimen. Stopping your traditional treatments and replacing them with cannabis oil without your physician’s knowledge could ultimately compromise your future cancer treatments.



Most Effective Alternative Cancer Treatments



The advanced type of cancer can’t be cured by alternative medicine, but they can offer some comfort and pain relief. It doesn’t take a psychologist or any medical health expert to know that some of these commonly used therapies have been proven to be tremendously effective in alleviating cancer pain, depression, and stress.

A lot of cancer patients are eager to try almost anything that can help decrease the pain that they’re feeling, and this includes alternative cancer therapy. Most often, for people with cancer, you feel as if you no longer have control over your health. Alternative therapy may provide some control, although not all types of alternative treatments have been proven to be very effective for the longer term, and some even pose a danger to other conditions.


To help you choose the effective from the not so recommended, here are a few commonly used alternative treatments that are proven and tested to be universally safe. Additionally, there has been increasing evidence that the cancer treatments listed below may provide mild to moderate benefit.

If you’re thinking about trying these alternative treatments, talk to your doctor.

  • Acupuncture. The acupuncturist inserts small needles on the trigger points of the patient’s body. Indications for acupuncture include cancer pain relief and decreased nausea caused by chemotherapy. Family members must make sure that the needles are sterile, and the practitioner doing the treatment is qualified to do so. For patients who have been prescribed with blood thinners, they’ll have to check with their doctors first.


  • Exercise. Gentle exercises that are structured and prepared by a certified instructor can help control the signs and symptoms that present during cancer treatment. These exercises are indicated for stress and fatigue relief, better sleep, and improvement of quality of life. Patients will be started slowly and are progressed depending on his performance. They can do their programs three to four times weekly.


  • Aromatherapy. This type of therapy is calming in relaxing, as it utilizes scented essential oils that are applied during a massage or added to bath water. The oils are heated so that the scents of lavender, peppermint, lemon, or chamomile are released into the room. Aromatherapy has been found to help in alleviating stress, nausea, and painful joints.




Cancer patients can contact an aromatherapist if he wants a more organized session, but he can do aromatherapy by himself. The oils are very safe to use on the skin and don’t cause skin allergies. However, patients with estrogen sensitivity should be cautious in applying too much lavender and tea tree oils.

  • Massage. For cancer patients, massage should be done gently. The massage therapist uses kneading and effleurage techniques to relieve pain, stress, and muscle tension and promote rejuvenation and relaxation. Mild to moderate pressure can also be applied.


Massage looks easy but only if it’s done without structure and organization. The real message that has a process is done by a seasoned and certified massage therapist who knows what to do and not to do when it comes to cancer patients. They must know that massage is contraindicated for those with low blood count and those with the involvement of the bones.


  • Hypnotherapy. This involves a deeper state of focus. In a hypnosis session, the therapist usually talks in a gentle voice to help the patient relax. He then walks you through your goals, dreams, and hopes for the future, or whatever you were there for. For the cancer patient, it is a pain relief and stress reduction. It may also help in preventing nausea from chemotherapy. A certified therapist must do this.


  • Yoga. Yoga is a practice that combines deep breathing and stretching. There are poses that the yoga instructor teaches you that will require you to bend or twist. There are many variations of yoga, depending on the kind of yoga that you want to try. This therapy is effective in relieving pain and stress and improving sleep. Just for caution, the patient may want to choose a yoga instructor that is used to handle people with specific illnesses like cancer so that she will know what poses are more beneficial and appropriate for him.



  • Tai Chi. The Tai Chi instructor combines slow and organized movements with deep breathing to promote relaxation and reduce stress. It is generally safe to try for everybody provided that no pose causes pain or discomfort. It doesn’t even require much strength. Initially, the cancer patient starts with an instructor and can do tai chi on his own later.


The alternative therapies mentioned above are also safe to combine, for example, tai chi and aromatherapy or yoga and massage.